International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 13 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 13 No. 1, 2022

Evaluation and Comparison of Antioxidant Capacities of Different Taros
Adila Saimaiti, Zi-Jin Jiao, Ruo-Gu Xiong, Dan-Dan Zhou, Hua-Bin Li
 PP. 1 - 7
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ABSTRACT: Taro is widely cultivated, and has rich nutritional properties. The antioxidant capacities, total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of different taros were evaluated and compared, including small red taro, big red taro, and betel taro. The antioxidant capacities of 50% ethanol and 80% methanol extracts of three taros were measured using ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, respectively. The TPC and TFC of the extracts from three taros were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and AlCl3 colorimetry, respectively. The results showed that different extraction solvents markedly influenced the antioxidant capacities of extracts, and the ethanol extract of small red taro possessed the strongest FRAP, TEAC, TPC and TFC values among the extracts of three taros. The results were helpful for the public to choose taro.

Evaluation and Comparison of Antioxidant Capacities of 48 Spices
Dan-Dan Zhou, Xu-Xia Ai,  Adila Saimaiti, Hua-Bin Li
 PP. 8 - 17
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ABSTRACT: Spice is widely consumed in the world. Many studies showed that spice possessed a variety of bioactive activities, such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity and anticancer activities. However, the antioxidant activities in different kinds of spices could be varied greatly. In this study, the antioxidant activities of fat-soluble fraction and water-soluble fraction of 48 kinds of spices were evaluated by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, respectively. Besides, the total phenolic contents (TPC) were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the relationships between antioxidant activities and TPC value of spices were analyzed. The results found that some spices had high antioxidant capacities and TPC values, such as clove, galangal, ginger, haw, leek white, yellow bell pepper, green bell pepper and red bell pepper. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the FRAP value and the TEAC value, which suggested that antioxidant components in these spices were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. Moreover, a significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC values indicated that phenolic compounds could be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity of spices. This paper could be very helpful for the full utilization of these spices, and several spices could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and functional foods for the prevention and treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.

Microbial Load and Shelf-Life Assessment of Ready-To-Eat Baby Extrudates from Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato, Soybean, and Amaranth Seeds Flour Blends
Jackson Nkesiga, Peninah N. Ngoda, Joseph O. Anyango
 PP. 18 - 39
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ABSTRACT: The microbiological load of any food product is a valuable indication of extruded food quality, as much as indicating the possible safety status of extrudates for human nutrition and storage. The shelf life of a food refers to the period during which the food product is safe for consumption and/or of an acceptable standard to customers. The microbial safety of food products serves as one of the most essential customer needs. The development of a child can be hampered by inadequate quality complementary foods, which can potentially cause illnesses and even child mortality. A critical step to be taken is post-extrusion processing to manage high-risk food safety concerns. The shelf-life study was carried out to find out how long extrudates could stay on a shelf while preserving their nutritional quality. Blend proportions namely C0 (control): 100:0:0; C1:50:25:25; and C3:50:30:20 for OFSP: Amaranth Seeds: Soybean flour, respectively, extrusion cooking end barrel temperature (70-90oC), die temperature of 90oC and feed moisture content of 35% were used to formulate extruded ready-to-eat baby foods. The extrudates were collected in storage polyethylene bags and stored at 4 different accelerated conditions for microbial analysis for 28 days. Samples were aseptically taken at the interval of seven days for the determination of total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), yeasts, and moulds (Y&M). The latter was used as a quality index for an accelerated shelf life study. The microbial counts of ready-to-eat baby foods ranged from 2.85 to 3.09 log10 cfu/g, 0.00 log10 cfu/g, and 1.93 to 2.06 log10 cfu/g for TVC, TCC, and Yeasts and moulds, respectively. The highest shelf life of extruded ready-to-eat baby foods was about 6 months while the least was 4 months. The extrusion technology has the potential to process products safely and provide them with a longer shelf life.