International Journal of Modern Organic Chemistry
ISSN: 2166-0174 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 4 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 4 No. 1, 2015

Graft Copolymerization of Acrylamide onto Corn Starch Using Mohr"s Salt/Hydrogen Peroxide Redox System in Aqueous Media under Visible Light
El Sayed A. Abdel-Razik, Doria S. Badawy, Eman A. El Nahas
      
 PP. 1 - 17
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ABSTRACT: The graft copolymerization of Acrylamide (Aam) onto Corn Starch (S) using Mohr"s Salt/H2O2 (FAS/H2O2) redox system in aqueous under visible light was extensively investigated. Many variables affecting the weight conversion (WC %), grafting percentage (GP %) and grafting efficiency (GE %) including time of visible light irradiation and contents of Aam, S, FAS and H2O2 were studied. The UV spectra of FAS and H2O2 were determined. The initial rate of grafting was found to be 0.74% per minute. The rate of graft copolymerization (Rg) was determined. The characterization of the grafted products was done using different techniques such as FTIR, X-ray diffraction, SEM and thermal analysis as TGA and DTA. Water absorption and solvent resistance of S-g-PAam copolymers were examined. The results were discussed and the mechanism of grafting was proposed.


Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Acylisothiocynate
Amira A. Ghoneim, Mohamed G. Assy, Enaiat K. Mohamed, Islam Ragab
      
 PP. 18 - 24
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ABSTRACT: : The reaction of aniline with acylisothiocyante 1 gave 1,3-thiourea derivative 2. Compound 2 underwent intramolecular cycloaddition when treated with sodium ethoxide, under which stirring at room temperature produced thiazineone derivative 3 while refluxing gave pyrimidine derivative 4. Also treatment of compound 1 with phenylenediamine5 afforded benzimidazolo pyrimidine derivative 7. Compound 1 with enaminones yielded acetyl pyridine derivatives 9 and acetyl pyrimidine derivatives 13. Finally the reaction of compound 1 was allowed to react with aminoesrer producing thiophene derivative 16. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been deduced from their elemental analysis and spectral data. The synthesized compounds were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities.


Kovats Retention Indices and Characterization of Some Nonionic Modified Alumina Adsorbents
Y. Barakat, V. Ibrahim, N. E. Mostafa and S. M. El-Zein
      
 PP. 25 - 39
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ABSTRACT: Decylamine ethoxylate (DAE) and eugenol ethoxylate (EE) nonionic surfactants were utilized as modifying agents for an alumina adsorbent. Five modified alumina adsorbent were prepared: ethoxylated decylamine modified-water pretreated alumina (EDA-AlH2O), ethoxylated decylamine modified alumina (EDA-Al), ethoxylated decylamine-sodium hydroxide pretreated alumina (EDA-AlNaOH), ethoxylated eugenol modified alumina (EE-Al), and ethoxylated eugenol-water pretreated alumina (EE-AlH2O). The modified alumina adsorbents were used as column packings in gas-solid chromatography (GSC). Twenty four of different adsorbates were chromatographed on these modified alumina columns. The employed adsorbates include n-alkanes, cis/trans-n-alkenes, alkylated and halogenated benzenes. Through Kovats retention indices, the prepared modified alumina surfaces, were characterized. The measured Kovats retention data reveal that the degree of modification of alumina surface depends maily on the functionality and the amphipathic structure of the employed nonionic modifying agents.


Kinetic Study of Ca(II) And Mg(II) on High Crosslinked PS-DVB Synthetic Resin from Chromium Solution
Mahmoud fathy, Th. Abdel Moghny, Ahmed E. Awad Allah, M. M. Abdou, and Abdel-Hameed A-A Fl-Bellihi
      
 PP. 40 - 55
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ABSTRACT: Experimental measurements have been made on the batch ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from solution using cation exchanger of high crosslink PS-DVB as Na+ form. The ion exchange behavior of two alkaline-earth metals on the resin, depending on contact time, pH, and temperature and resin dosage was studied. The adsorption isotherms were described by means of the Langmuir and Frendlich isotherms. For Ca(II) ion, the Langmuir model represented the adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. The maximum ion exchange capacity was found to be 2.25 mg /g for Ca(II) and 1.13 mg/g for Mg(II). The kinetic data were tested using Lagergren-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step.


Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose Nanoparticles Obtained from Rice Straw Waste
Mahmoud Fathy, Mahmoud Ahmed Mousa Th. Abdel Moghny, and Abdel-Hameed A-A. El-Bellihi, M. M. Abdou, Ahmed E. Awadallah
      
 PP. 56 - 61
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ABSTRACT: Rice straw is a rich source of fibers and it can be purified to obtain monocrystalline cellulose. The objective of this work was to create and characterize cellulose nanoparticles basec on rice straw by means of physicochemical methods. Dried rice straw waste fibers were delignified and hydrolyzed by alkaline and acid treatments. Then cellulose was purified and hydrolyzed by means of heat, sonication and dialysis to obtain cellulose nanoparticles. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as well as x-ray diffraction and image analysis were used to characterize the morphology, distribution and size, and crystallinity of the nanoparticles. The TEM observations exhibit that the average particle size is 300 nm and oscillated from 100 to 500 nm with a logarithmic distribution. Diffraction patterns from HRTEM images were taken to measure the crystalline structure of cellulose nanoparticles and a triclinic unitary cell was elucidated. XRD was measure to evaluate the crystallinity index (Xcr) of nanoparticles and it was compared with cotton microcrystalline cellulose as reference. Such results reveals that the Xcr of nanoparticle recorded (39 %) and that is lower than cotton cellulose reference (79 %), this could be due to its nanosize and the purity grade of the particles.


Development of Sulfonated Nanocomposites Ion Exchange Resin for Removal of Sodium Ions from Saline Water
Mahmoud Fathy, Th. Abdel Moghny, Ahmed E. Awadallah, Moaz M. Abdou, and Abdel-Hameed A-A El-Bellihi
      
 PP. 62 - 69
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ABSTRACT: A stable composite cation exchange adsorbent for the treatment of sodium metal ions has been synthesized by suspension polymerization method. Kinetic study, Ion exchange capacity, pH titration, distribution studies were also carried out to determine the primary ion-exchange characteristics of the composite cation exchange adsorbent material. The material shows exchange capacity of 4.22meq g−1 (for Na+ ions). pH titration data reveal its bifunctional behavior. The distribution coefficient values (Kd) of metal ions have been determined in water Colum systems. On the basis of Kd values the composite cation exchange material was selective for sodium ions. The composite cation exchanger is applied for the treatment of saline water and synthetic mixture successfully and can be used as a conducting material.


Production of Soap from Neem Seed Oil and Acacia nilotica Seed Oil
K.J. Hassan, M.S. Zubairu and Oyewole R. Olayemi
      
 PP. 70 - 84
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ABSTRACT: Neem seed oil and Acacia nilotica seed oil were extracted from powdered sample of the seeds using Soxhlet extraction method with n-hexane as the solvent. The powdered seeds gave 37.71% and 3.29% oil yield for both neem seeds and Acacia nilotica seeds sample respectively. The parameter analysis revealed that both neem seed oil and Acacia nilotica seed oil had the saponification, iodine and acid value of, 144.46 ± 1.41 mgKOH/g and 184.20 ± 2.13 mgKOH/g, 71.38 ± 0.83 gI2/100g and 137.05 ± 0.55 gI2/100g, 19.14 ± 0.21 mgKOH/g and 9.05 ± 0.34 mgKOH/g, respectively. The analytical values obtained were in favor of utilization of this oil in soap making. The extracted oil was used to prepare green and milk colour soap for both Acacia nilotica seed oil and neem seed oil which are slightly soluble in water. The pH values of 9.63 and 10.52 for both neem oil soap and Acacia nilotica oil soap respectively were obtained. The soap has total alkali value of 0.23 ± 0.20 and 0.85 ± 0.02 for neem oil soap and Acacia nilotica oil soap with total fatty matter of 18.00 ± 2.00 and 7.33 ± 2.08, respectively. The foam height of the soaps was 2.37 cm and 1.90 cm for both neem oil soap and Acacia nilotica oil soap, respectively.