International Journal of Modern Chemistry
ISSN: 2165-0128 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 11 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 11 No. 1, 2019

Extraction of Fullerene C60 from the Surface of the Herbal Pipe after Combustion of Coal and Wood
Khalikov Shirinbek Khalikovich, Alieva Savlat Valievna, Zafarov Sorbon Zafarovich
 PP. 1 - 8
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ABSTRACT: From the soot of the chimney by completely burning wood together with brown coal, a small amount of graphite was extracted with fullerene C60. It was found that during the burning of coal and wood a large amount of heat is generated accompanying the evaporation of carbon carrying free electrons transforming the trigonal configuration with the further formation of mono-, di- and trimeric carbon radicals condensing to the formation of C60.

Computational and Experimental Studies on Antimicrobial Activity of the Bark of Annona muricata against Some Selected Human Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi
OYEBAMIJI Abel K, AKINTELU Sunday A, FOLORUNSO Aderonke S., ABIOLA Babawale E., AJAYI Samuel O., Abdusalam Ibrahim O., and Morakinyo Adetoun E.
 PP. 9 - 27
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ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have traditionally provided a source of hope for novel drug compounds with effectiveness to combat antimicrobial resistance, as plant herbal mixtures have made large contributions to human growth and health. Antimicrobial resistance is presently one of the main threats facing human therefore causing dreadful economic and health impact. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts of Annona muricata bark were investigated. The extracts also showed higher minimum antifungal activity when compared to the commercial antibiotic Amphotercin B. The extracts compete favorably with commercial available antibacterial streptomycin in terms of the minimum zones of inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentrations. The prominent antibacterial activity of these extracts on tested bacterial shows that very small amount of the extracts is needed to inhibit the growth of all the tested bacteria except Staphyloccus aureus which might be due to the phytochemicals found in them. Also, the docking study observed in this work revealed the effectiveness of some active components of Annona muricata against both selected bacteria and fungi. Annonaine inhibited Candida albican (PDB ID: 1q42) and Fusarium oxysperium (PDB ID: 5od4) and Coreximine Real and Reticuline inhibited Aspergillus flaws (PDB ID: 1cf3) and Penicillium camemeri (PDB ID: 2mhv) respectively more than other studied compounds. Annonaine inhibited Clostridium sporogenes, Entrococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccus aureus cell lines than other studied compounds and Coclaurine inhibited Bacillus subtilis. This study provides scientific evidence of traditional use of Annona muricata part for medicinal purpose and indicates its potency for the development of antimicrobial agents.

Preparation, Characterization and Application of Rice Husk Adsorbent in the Removal of Ampicillin from Aqueous Solution
Ungwanen John Ahile, Hope Ngohile Iorav, Levi Dooga, Dafa Terungwa, Solomon Dooyum Igbawase, Kaana Asemave, and Samuel Terlumun Torsabo
 PP. 28 - 39
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the adsorption of ampicillin was carried out using the batch adsorption studies. An adsorbent was extracted from rice husk using a sol-gel method with 1.0 M HCl. The physicochemical properties such as moisture content, attrition, bulk density and porosity were found to be 7.25%, 57.60%, 1.34 g/m3 and 0.65 respectively. Batch adsorption experiments of the adsorbent were conducted under various conditions such as temperature, pH, adsorbent dosage, concentration of the adsorbate and contact time using a standard solution of ampicillin. Percentage removal of ampicillin increase from 30-45 ºC and decreases after 45 ºC with optimum operating temperature of 45 ºC, Percentage removal of ampicillin decrease at different pH varying from 3-5 and 9-11, the increases in pH was from 5-9 with 9 been the highest pH of adsorption. The variation of contact time showed a decrease from 10-30 minutes. Percentage removal of ampicillin showed a sharp decrease as adsorbent dosage increase from 0.4-0.6 g. The increase in percentage removal of the adsorbate at various concentrations was inconsistent. The experimental data were tested using adsorption isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The R2 value of Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin was found to be 0.811, 0.705 and 0.639. Langmuir model was found to be the best fit for the data.

Kinetics and Physical Mechanism of Pb (II) and Cd (II) Ions Uptake from Aqueous Solution using Unmodified and Modified Cola lepidota Seed Extract as Adsorbents
Armstrong Ehiedu Pat-Okunbor, Millicent Uzoamaka Ibezim-Ezeani, and Chidi Obi
 PP. 40 - 56
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ABSTRACT: The kinetics of Pb (II) and Cd (II) removal from aqueous media using unmodified Cola lepidota extract (UCE) and ethanedioic acid-modified Cola lepidota extract (ECE) was evaluated. The time-dependency tests on the adsorbent characteristics of the unmodified and modified propanone extract of Cola lepidota seed were performed at temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The experimentally resolved data between 10 and 90 min were applied to pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich kinetic models. The pseudo second-order equation gave the best fit with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9990 to 0.9998 within the tested range, indicating the greater influence of chemical adsorption in the process. The exothermic trend of the chemisorption process was reflected by the negative values of activation energy in the order: Pb (II) onto ECE ˃ Cd (II) onto UCE ˃ Pb (II) onto UCE ˃ Cd (II) onto ECE. The physical mechanism of the process at 30 °C was verified by applying the generated data into film, mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion models. Results showed that the rate controlling step was mass transfer mechanism judging from its highest values of R2; which signified that the energetics of the system experienced negligible resistance from the external and internal diffusion.

Kinetic Studies of the Biosorption of Zn and Pb (ii) from Solution Using Tea Fibre
Emmanuel E. Etim, David Dennis, Godwin Oko E.
 PP. 57 - 72
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a biobsorption study on Zn and Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solution using tea fiber as the biosorbent. The biosorption study was carried out as a function of contact time, initial metal ion concentration and biosorbent dosage. The residual Zn and Pb(II) in solution were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The biosorption was also time dependent as maximum biosorption was obtained after 10 and 20 min, for both lead and zinc respectively. Kinetic studies show that the biosorption of both Zn and Pb(II) can be described by pseudo-second-order kinetics while that of Zn in addition, also fitted more to pseudo first order than that of Pb. For the metal ions, the biosorption efficiency increases with increase in initial metal ion concentration. These results indicate that tea fiber has a high potential for the uptake of Zn and Pb (II) from industrial effluents waste water and therefore, present yet another bright future in the treatment of industrial effluents containing these metals with a merit of the tea fiber been safe, readily available and cost effective.

 PP. 73 - 81               This paper was retracted.

Cancer Risk Evaluation of Some Antidiabetic Herbal Drugs Sold in Irele Metropolis of Ondo State in Nigeria
AKINTELU Sunday Adewale and FOLORUNSO Aderonke Similoluwa
 PP. 82 - 93
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ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its presence at high concentration in our environment, foods and herbal drugs have been linked to diverse negative health implications in human. Scientific investigations in recent time has been channeled to prevent PAHs adverse health implications in human. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential health risks of some antidiabetic herbal drugs sold in Irele metropolis of Nigeria. Three popularly recommended antidiabetic herbal drugs commonly used in Irele metropolis were purchased for the purpose of the study. The herbal drug samples were extracted via ultrasonication and cleaned up using column chromatography. The concentrations of PAHs were quantify via Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector. PAHs diagnostic indices and cancer risk estimation were evaluated using standard formulae. Among the 16 individual PAHs analyzed, the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs ranges from 16.61 % in sample C to 11.72 % in sample A. The source diagnostic indices showed that the PAHs in these samples were from pyrogenic sources. The cancer risk estimated among the population studied ranges from 5.0812 x 10-8 to 0.7694 x 10-8. The cancer risk estimated values in this study were below the risk level of 1x10-6 set by USEPA to cause cancer. This implied that the consumption of these herbal drugs at moderate level might not be a factor that can increased cancer in Nigeria. Notwithstanding persistent monitoring of herbal drugs production and sale should be ensure to prevent adulterations and reduces contamination level.

Analysis of Aluminum in Different Products and Its Removal by Chemical and Biological Methods
1 M. S. Zubairu, U. Isah, and B. Magaji
 PP. 94 - 111
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ABSTRACT: Aluminum is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon. It is a non-essential trace element with no known biological function to which humans are frequently exposed. It is widespread throughout nature, air, water, plants and consequently in food. In this study, an analysis of aluminum in different products was done by means of some reagents to test for the presence or absence of the metal ions in these product samples. Aluminum removal or absorption by chemical and biological methods was also investigated. The results show that many of the products tested positive for the metal ion which has been shown by other researchers to be related to certain illnesses or health conditions such as Alzheimer"s disease. Fortunately, the results also indicated that Na4EDTA is the chemical agent that removed Al3+ ions in absorption study, while onion, tomato, and cucumber are the vegetables that do the same. Wheat as a grain also removed Al3+ ions while with garlic, the removal was partial. Clay pot was suggested to be safer than aluminum based. Qualitative analysis was suggested as a prominent, fast, and simple technique for analyzing this widespread and toxic metal when sophisticated techniques or equipment are not available or accessible. Because this metal has infested mainstream products to the degree that it is virtually impossible to avoid exposure completely, it becomes important to be aware on the dangers and health concerns with anything that you put into your body or can get in due to too much exposure. It is therefore highly recommended that we opt for organic foods with responsible packaging, and go for raw foods when possible, that will not require any sort of cooking. Investigate any non-edible packaged product for possible aluminum content or traces before use, look for alternatives if possible or reduce too much exposure if it becomes inevitable to avoid completely.

Studies of Kolaviron (GBI) Derivatives for Anti-inflammatory Properties against (2fht), Using Density Functional Theory and Docking Methods
 PP. 112 - 124
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ABSTRACT: A series of kolaviron (GBI) derivatives were studied for inhibitory activity against inflammatory cell (2fht) using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and docking approach. Some of the calculated molecular descriptors such as log P, solvation energy and average electronic charges on heteroatoms showed that each of these descriptors has a fair relationship with observed anti-inflammatory activity relationship moreover the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), dipole moment, solvation energy and average electronic charges on heteroatom are critical factors for the observed biological activity. Kolaviron was docked against inflammatory receptor (2fht). The reaction between the different derivatives of kolaviron and 2fth was monitored using vina and discovery studio 2017. The result showed that there are ten active site between kolaviron GB1 and 2fht .There are ten active sites kolaviron GB2 and 2fht.The reaction between kolaviron GB3 and receptor 2fth revealed that there are eleven interaction points . The reaction between kolaviron GB4 and receptor 2fth revealed that there are eleven interaction points. Some of the calculated molecular descriptors such as log P, salvation energy and average electronic charges on heteroatoms showed that each of these descriptors has a fair relationship with observed anti-inflammatory activity relationship moreover the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), dipole moment, solvation energy and average electronic charges on heteroatom are critical factors for the observed biological activity.