International Journal of Modern Chemistry
ISSN: 2165-0128 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 10 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 10 No. 1, 2018

Trimethyol Urea and Polyethylene Waste Composite as a Binder for Emulsion Paint Formulation
Archibong C.S., Osemeahon S.A, Ushie, O.A and Ugwuja, D. I
 PP. 1 - 13
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ABSTRACT: Trimethyol Urea resin was prepared and blended with polyethylene waste to form a composite. The resulting composite was analyzed for the three problems (namely hardness, low water resistance and formaldehyde emission) traditionally associated with methyol urea which showed a remarkable improvement, also some physical properties such as melting point, refractive index, viscosity, density, gel time were studied. IR analysis of Trimethyol Urea, polyethylene waste and that of the composite showed chemical interaction between trimethyol urea and polyethylene waste.

Effect of Time on the Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Alstonia boonei for Ethanol Production
Inyang, E. J., Etim, E. E., Ugwuja, D. I., Ukafia, O. P
 PP. 14 - 32
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ABSTRACT: Pre-treatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bio-ethyl alcohol. The study investigated bio-ethyl alcohol production by means of two pretreatment processes of Alstonia boonei wood sawdust namely, alkali treatment and acid hydrolysis, before enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequently fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis isolated from freshly tapped palm wine. In one Alstonia boonei wood sawdust was treated with 1.5%(w/v) aqueous NaOH at two different temperatures of 100ºC for 2h and 28ºC for 18 h followed by acid hydrolysis 0.75%(v/v) H2SO4 at 100oC for 2 h. In the second method of the pretreatment, the wood sawdust was first subjected to acid hydrolysis and thereafter alkali treatments at the same conditions. After the pretreatment, the residues obtained were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using accellerase 1500(commercial cellulase). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified using their morphological characteristics and by determining their pattern of fermentation and assimilation of glucose, sucrose, maltose and lactose. On the other hand, Zymomonas mobilis was identified using API TM test kit. Analysis of reducing sugar in the residues was performed using Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. The results revealed that maximum yield of glucose (48.2g/L) after enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained with pretreatment of 0.75% H2SO4 at 100ºC for 2h followed by alkali pretreatment (1.5% NaOH) at 1000C for 2h which produced 20.4g/L reducing sugars. The optimum condition for S. cerevisiae were pH 4.5, temperature of 35ºC and fermentation time of 72 h. Analysis of ethyl alcohol content was carried out using gas chromatography. The maximum ethyl alcohol yield of 3.24 g/L and efficiency of 62% was obtained for S. cerevisiae while yield of 3.82g/L and efficiency of 74.2% was obtained for Z. mobilis.

Physicochemical Characterization of Oil and Metallic Soaps from Two Varieties of Palm Kernel Oil (Tenera and Dura)
A. E. Akpakpan, E. W. Nsi, N. W. Akpanudo, I. O. Ekwere and A. J. Edem
 PP. 33 - 46
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ABSTRACT: Palm kernel oil (PKO) was extracted from two varieties of palm kernel seeds using n-hexane as the extracting solvent, the results of the physical characteristics of the oils (dura-PKO and tenera-PKO) were as follows: yield (51.28%, 50.92%), colour (yellow, pale yellow), density (1.1g/cm3, 0.9g/cm3), viscosity (723.9kg/m/s, 505.4kg/m/s), moisture content (2.95%, 4.15%), refractive index (0.5676, 0.6885), specific gravity (1.1, 0.9), the odours of both oils were non-offensive and both oils had distinct taste. The chemical characteristics were as follows: acid value (7.29 mgKOH/g, 5.61 mgKOH/g), free fatty acids (12.22%, 21.81%), peroxide value (20 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg), pH value (6.49, 6.72), iodine value (57.78 gI2/100g, 74.93 gI2/100g), saponification value (207.57 mgKOH/g, 258.06 mgKOH/g) and ester value (200.28 mgKOH/g, 252.45 mgKOH/g) respectively. Both oils have good yields, their iodine values classified them as non-drying oils which make them suitable for industrial purposes, the peroxide value of dura-PKO was higher than that of tenera-PKO, which makes dura-PKO to be more susceptible to oxidative rancidity, dura-PKO is preferable as lubricant because of high viscosity and low iodine value, while tenera-PKO is more suitable for production of soap because of high saponification value and also suitable for the production of biodiesel because of its high fatty acids content. The result also showed that both oils are soluble in chloroform and ethanol, insoluble in water and partially soluble in petroleum ether. The metallic soap of Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ were prepared from the extracted oils. The result revealed that both oil give good yields of metallic soap which ranged as fellows: tenera (51.22 – 53.81%), dura (51.50 – 55.20%). Ash contents of all the metallic soap increase with decrease in metal contents. However tenera soap had greater ash contents and lower metal contents. All metallic soaps were insoluble in water but soluble in acetone, kerosene and partially soluble in ethanol.

The Removal of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Bimetallic Ag–Fe MOF Catalysts
Awad I. Ahmed, W.S. Abo El-Yazeed, Y.G.A.El-Reash and L.A. Elatwy
 PP. 47 - 58
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ABSTRACT: Bimetallic Ag–Fe Metal organic frameworks (MOF) were hydrothermally prepared via blending metal and terephthalic acid. The prepared MOF is used to investigate the adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The effect of the experimental parameters such as pH, time, temperature and weight of MOF were studied. Langmuir isotherm model was found more appropriate to depict the adsorption of Pb(II) ions. The adsorption kinetics was expressed using pseudo second order model. Solution pH demonstrated a noteworthy effect on the adsorption procedure and the extreme quantity of Pb(II) ions adsorbed was 366 mg/g at pH=5.

Phytochemical, Proximate Composition and Vitamin C. Content of Carica papaya
Neji, P. A Ushie O. A, Neji, H. A Ogah, E, Vaal, E
 PP. 59 - 68
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ABSTRACT: This research presents an insight to the various macronutrient contents, the concentration of ascorbic acid and the various medicinal components of the various commercial fruits. The phytochemical screening indicates the presence of cardiac glycosides, polyphenols and reducing compounds in both water and petroleum ether extracts while saponins was detected in water extract only. The result revealed that the moisture content is 34%, ash contents 8%, Fibre 5%, Fibre content 16% Carbohydrate content 66% and crude protein 5.1%.

Synthesis and Bioactivities of H3PW12O40/SnO2-TiO2 Nanocomposite
Mohammed A. Mannaa, Shawky M. Hassan, Awad I. Ahmed
 PP. 69 - 79
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ABSTRACT: SnO2/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method and calcined at 500oC. Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) loaded SnO2/TiO2 nanoparticles was prepared using impregnation method. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of PTA/SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposite were tested. PTA/SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposite shows moderate and low antibacterial activity against three types of bacteria. The catalyst showed more antibacterial activity against E. coli compares to other types of bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the samples increases with increasing the PTA content to reach a maximum at 20% PTA/SnO2-TiO2 and then decreases with increasing PTA content. The effect of PTA content on the antioxidant was studied. The result showed that the antioxidant decreases with increasing the PTA content.

Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Sulfuric Acid by Using N, N-dihydroxy Ethyl Acryl Amide (HEAA) as a New Organic Inhibitor
Adel H. Ali
 PP. 80 - 103
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to study a possibility of using preparing organic compound like N, N-dihydroxy ethyl acryl amide (HEAA) as corrosion inhibitor that can have a decisive effect on decreasing of metallic corrosion rate and effected the heat treatment of metal sample such as quenching in oil. In this regard, we simultaneously present an overview on HEAA compound performance, as corrosion inhibitor in mixed solution 10% ethanol and 0.5N H2SO4. The electrochemical measurements such as potentiodynamic polarization was performed to determine the HEAA inhibition efficiency that has reached the highest level for carbon steel as cast (LCA) and heat treatment (LCH). The activation parameter of adsorption HEAA on metal sample under studied that found obeyed with Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the mechanism of adsorption was discussed.

Effect of Extraction Methods on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil
E. A. Yerima, G. G. Yebpella, E. Ogah, B. D. Longbap and S. N. Johnson
 PP. 104 - 116
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of extraction methods on the physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil extracted by the traditional roasting method, traditional aqueous method, solvent method and mechanical extraction method. Solvent extraction method was found to be most effective with 51.35% yield compared to traditional roasting method, traditional aqueous method and mechanical extraction methods with 16%, 36.70% and 40.02% yield respectively. The viscosity, refractive index and specific gravity were within the range of 30.20-36.90 mm2/s, 1.454-1.457o and 0.922-0.928 g/cm3 respectively for the oil extract. The palm kernel oil extracted via solvent extraction has the highest saponification value of 337.74 mgKOH/g while the least value found in the one extracted by mechanical means. Also Iodine value, acid value and free fatty acid value of the palm kernel oil extracted via traditional roasting method, traditional aqueous method, solvent method and mechanical extraction method were in the range 8.19-14.00 gI2/g, 5.30-8.10 mgKOH/g and 2.65-4.05 mgKOH/g respectively. The oil extracted by solvent means recorded the highest saponification value, iodine value, acid value and free fatty acid values implying that it’s the most unsaturated and would fine better application in soap industry and as feedstock for biodiesel production while the oil extracted by mechanical means has the least saponification value, acid value and free fatty acid value.

Molecular Properties of the Valence Isomers of Diazines: Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Møller Plesset (mp2) Methods
IBRAHIM, Asiata Omotayo, OYEBAMIJI Abel Kolawole and SEMIRE Banjo
 PP. 117 - 137
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ABSTRACT: Density functional theory (B3LYP) and Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to the second order (MP2) methods with 6-31G(d),6-31+G(d,p), 6-311G (d,p), 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets have been used to investigate some diazine isomers. The equilibrium geometries, relative stabilities, strain energies, vibrational frequencies and global nucleophilicity indices for fifteen isomers are reported. The relative energies show that Dewar isomers (except 1,4-DBHD) are more stable compared to the Diazyl-isomers. The isomers with N-N and/or N-C bonds in the center are less stable, this is observed for both Dewar and Diazyl-isomers; therefore nitrogen atom(s) in the center of the isomers decreases the stability.