International Journal of Modern Chemistry
ISSN: 2165-0128 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 9 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 9 No. 1, 2017

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Leea Guineensis Stem Bark
Neji, P. A Ushie O. A; Neji, H. A; Opara, I.J and Ojong, O. O
      
 PP. 1 - 9
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ABSTRACT: The stem bark of Leea guineensis was extracted by two extraction methods: cold (Batch) and Soxhlet (continuous) extraction. The extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides in all the samples of ethanol and hexane/acetone/methanol mixture extracts, but the phytochemicals considered varied among the stem extracts of other solvents (hexane, chloroform, acetone, and methanol). The antimicrobial test results revealed that the plant extracts exhibited efficacy against a number of microbes (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus substillus, Candida alblican, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Streptococcus pneumonia) that were used in the study by exhibiting respective clear zones of inhibition against these microbes which ranges from 08mm -23mm.


CdS-Bi2S3 Hetero Nano Structure Synthesis, Characterization and Its Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B under Visible Light
Awad I. Ahmed, A. M. Youssef, S. A. El-Hakam, M. M. Moawed
      
 PP. 10 - 22
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ABSTRACT: The Bi2S3, CdS and CdS-Bi2S3 photocatalysts were synthesized via one step hydrothermal method between thiourea and their salts in a hydrothermal autoclave. Structures and morphologies of the samples were examined by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TEM. TEM images showed Bi2S3 has a nanowire shape and CdS appears as small spots on Bi2S3 surface and the diameter of Bi2S3 ranging from 23 to 37 nm. The photo-catalytic activity of the samples under UV-visible and visible irradiations were examined respectively. The complete degradation of RhB was recorded within 130 min and within 60 min under UV-visible and visible irradiation respectively. The degradation percent of RhB changes with CdS content in the CdS-Bi2S3 nano composite due to Bi2S3 narrow band gab. The CdS-Bi2S3 activity could be attributed to inhibit the recombination of hole-electron pairs and fast migration of charge-carriers.


The Investigation of the Relationship between Chemical Structure and Biological Activity of Isosteric Heterocyclics
Davood Gheidary, Rahele Fard Amini
      
 PP. 23 - 41
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ABSTRACT: Candidiasis is an infection caused by Candida Albicans. Derivatives of Benzoxazoles, Benzimidazoles, Oxazolo (4, 5-b) pyridines can control this fungus. In this research, the first step is an attempt to use multiple linear regression method to predict and model biological activities of these compounds. These derivatives include 60 molecules the controlling effect of which has been defined by experiments. Next, through leverage analysis method, outlier molecules were identified and through this method, 5 such molecules were identified and eliminated. After that, the remained molecules were randomly divided into two calibration and prediction including 41 and 14 molecules respectively. Then, using SPSS/PC software, and through stepwise MLR, the best model including 12 descriptors was found. Since, the 12 descriptors entered into model were correlated and since the amount of Q2 of prediction series was not desirable, in the next stage, successive projection algorithm was used as follows: first, descriptors underwent a preliminary stage of selection, next, through stepwise MLR; a model including 13 descriptors was defined. The findings revealed that although descriptors that entered into model were not correlated, the amount of Q2 of prediction series was significant in them. Ultimately, through relative mean effect, it was revealed that 3D-Morse; RDF and D-autocorrelation descriptors contain the important parameters that are determinant in inhibitory behavior of the above said compounds.


A New Synthesized Highly Durable Ion Imprinted PVC for Selective Separation of Copper (II) Ions
Magdi E. Khalifa, Ibrahim M. M. Kenawy, Y.G. Abou El-Reash, A. B. Abdallah
      
 PP. 42 - 68
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ABSTRACT: Novel PVC surface ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) has been synthesized and used for selective separation of Cu (II) from various matrices. The structure of the imprinted polymer was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The sorption behaviour of Cu (II) onto the imprinted polymer was studied as a function of various parameters including pH, temperature, contact time and initial Cu (II) concentration using batch technique. The results obtained showed that imprinted PVC has a good affinity and high selectivity for Cu (II) in the presence of competitive ions. Furthermore, the maximum sorption capacity was 172.4 mg g-1. The sorbed copper was completely recovered from the imprinted polymer using 0.1M HNO3. Moreover, the preconcentration factor was 150 with a lower limit of detection at 0.38 ng mL–1. Reusability studies indicate that the efficiency of PVC imprinted polymer was nearly unchanged after elaborating fifty (sorption – desorption) cycles. Fast adsorption kinetics was observed and thus column mode was also applied. The thermodynamic parameters suggested a spontaneous and endothermic adsorption process. Furthermore, the proposed imprinted polymers have been applied for separation and determination of Cu (II) in water and certified geological samples with satisfactory results.


Effect of Time on the Adsorption of Metallic Soaps onto Hematite in Aqueous Media
Asuquo, J. E., Ugwuja, D. I., and Etim, E. E
      
 PP. 69 - 77
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ABSTRACT: The effect of time on the adsorption of potassium, calcium and aluminum soaps of rubber seed oil, Shea butter and castor oil onto hematite in aqueous phase was investigated as a prelude to determine the possible use of these soaps as collector reagents in metal ore beneficiation. The result shows that the most adsorbed of all the soaps with respect to time is potassium soap of castor oil. The soaps containing potassium in all soaps type adsorb faster followed by the soaps containing calcium. Aluminum soap has the least adsorption but the result however shows that between 48 and 50 minutes, all type of soaps attains equilibrium adsorption. The level of adsorption of all the adsorbates on the surface of the adsorbent suggests that all the potassium soaps of castor oil in this study show reasonable degree of surface coverage with time that may warrant their use as collector reagents in flotation separation of hematite from its ore.

Synthesis of 1:1 and 1:2 Iron Complexes of 1-(4-ydrozyphenylazo)-2- naphthol
Batari M. L, B. Myek, Suleiman Bello, Aronimo B.D., Ochigbo V
      
 PP. 78 - 83
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ABSTRACT: An azo dye was synthesized by coupling 3-aminophenol and naphthalene 2-ol before reacting with iron (III) chloride to form an azo complex. The dye and its metal complexes were characterized using IR spectroscopy and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The IR spectra of the azo dye and its complexes were obtained. The appearance of the azo band at (1450-1600cm-1) indicates that the synthesized dye and its complexes contained an azo group. The IR spectra showed that the values of – N = N – stretching frequency (1457cm-1) in unmetalized dye and synthesized complex remain practically unchanged indicating that – N = N – group have no part in coordination whereas the carbonyl group C = O stretching frequency (1654.9cm-1) in the dyes have unchanged values as well, indicating that carbonyl group is not taking part in coordination. The high changing in the shape and the position of O – H stretching and O – H in plane bending and O – H out of plane bending and C – O stretching in phenol group and changing in the position of C = N stretching in pyridyl group as compared to spectra of free ligands indicating that (OH group and N atom) in 4 – hydroxyl phenyl azo dye are involved in coordination between the azo dyes with their synthesized complexes. The UV-VIS analysis of the unmetallized dye shows a maximum absorption at 448nm while both the two azo dye complexes show absorption maxima at 362.00nm respectively.


Enhancement the Photocatalytic activity of the SnO2/TiO2 Nanocrystals under UV-visible Light
Mohammed A. Mannaa, Shawky M. Hassan, Awad I Ahmed
      
 PP. 84 - 92
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ABSTRACT: A series of SnO2/TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared via a sol-gel method using different content of SnO2 (0 – 20 wt.%) and the samples calcined at 500oC. The samples were characterized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was studied on degradation of brilliant green (BG) under UV-visible light. It observed that the degradation of BG over SnO2/TiO2 nanocrystals was much higher than that of pure TiO2 and 10% SnO2/TiO2 exhibited the higher photocatalytic activity. The effects of SnO2 content and BG concentration on the photocatalytic activity of the SnO2/TiO2 nanocrystals were studied.


Effect of Concentration on the Adsorption of Metallic Soaps Shea Butter onto Hematite in Aqueous Media
Asuquo, J. E.; Ugwuja, D. I.; and Etim, E. E
      
 PP. 93 - 99
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ABSTRACT: The effect of concentration on the adsorption of potassium, calcium and aluminum soaps of Shea butter onto hematite in aqueous phase was investigated as a prelude to determine the possible use of these soaps as collector reagents in metal ore beneficiation. The result shows that the most adsorbed of all the soaps with respect to concentration is potassium metal soap of the shea butter oil. The soaps containing potassium adsorbs faster and attains maximum adsorption density at highest concentration followed by the soaps containing calcium. Aluminum soap has the least adsorption with concentration but attains maximum adsorption density at a lower concentration. The level of adsorption of all the adsorbates on the surface of the adsorbent suggests that the potassium soap of shea butter oil in this study show reasonable degree of surface coverage with concentration although at certain concentration, the whole soaps reached maximum adsorption density and shows no effect with increase in concentration.