International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 9 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 9 No. 1, 2018

The Effects of Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil before and after Flowering against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria
Razzagh Mahmoudi, Morteza Kosari-Nasab, Armin Hassanzadeh, Davoud Eshghi, Ata Kaboudari, Azar Mohammadi, Kazem Maftooni, Babak Pakbin, Mohammad Panahzadeh
 PP. 1 - 7
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ABSTRACT: The absence of side effects of herbal essential oils and their antimicrobial effects has led researchers to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of essential oils and plant extracts in vitro to control microorganisms with a natural source. Artemisia is one of the genera of the Anthemideae family, widely distributed in the world and containing more than 400 species. In this study, Artemisia spicigera before and after flowering was prepared from region Bostanabad of East Azerbaijan and essential oils were extracted using Clevenger apparatus. Constituents of essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. Then, the antimicrobial effect of essential oil Artemisia spicigera against bacteria isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) was determined and with some standard antibiotics as a positive control was compared. For the preparation of bacteria of 20 cows with clinical mastitis was sampled and after culturing milk samples, the bacteria were isolated. The results showed that the inhibitoriest effect of Artemisia essential oils, before and after flowering, was 15 and 30 mm on Staphylococcus aureus and 9 and 25 mm on Escherichia coli in 100% concentration, respectively. Also in antibiogram method most diameter of inhibition zone in culture medium against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was related to ceftriaxone, 40 and 25 mm, respectively. Results also showed that the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of Artemisia spicigera after flowering was more than before flowering. Due to the significant antibacterial activity of Artemisia essential oil in compared to different antibiotics can be concluded that essential oil of Artemisia spicigera has impressive antimicrobial properties, so it can be used in combination with other preservatives as natural herbal medicine using in treatment of mastitis in cows.

Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Fortified Dairy Products
Heena Jalal, Mohammad Ashraf Pal and Sheikh Rafeh Ahmad
 PP. 8 - 18
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ABSTRACT: Free radicals and reactive oxygen species such as the oxygen molecule behave as double-edged sword. They are important mediators in signal transduction and play a vital role in the production of biologically active and essential compounds. At the same time, these reactive oxygen species induce oxidative damage to biomolecules like lipids, nucleic acid, proteins, amines, deoxyribonucleic acid and carbohydrates and their oxidation products which cause aging, cancer, heart disease, stroke, arteriosclerosis, diabetes etc. Human beings are protected from such oxidative stress by various defense systems. The capacity of such protective systems, however, gradually decreases with aging or during certain pathological conditions resulting in disturbances to the normal redox equilibrium established in healthy systems. Therefore, to replenish this age/disease-induced loss, the body must be provided with a constant supply of antioxidants by the regular intake of a proper diet. New research interest has generated to develop functional food products with enhanced antioxidant properties. Fruits contain various bioactive compounds with antioxidant activities, and fermented dairy products have potential to be incorporated with fruits to enhance their antioxidant potential. Hence, in the present section an attempt has been made to review, briefly, the antioxidant properties of fruit fortified fermented dairy products in particular.

Bioactive Components and Bioactivities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Xiao-Yu Xu, Ya Li, Hua-Bin Li
 PP. 19 - 27
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ABSTRACT: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a delicious and nutritional fruit, and has attracted the attention of consumers as well as researchers. There was a high level of bioactive compounds in pomegranate, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. Pomegranate have shown various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Pomegranate could be used as a potential healthy supplement or biopharmaceutical for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. In this paper, we summarize present studies about bioactive components and bioactivities of pomegranate, providing a general and foundational information for further investigation.

Contribution of Land Tenure on Enhancing Subsistence Farming in Kibaha District, Tanzania
Japhet Ringo
 PP. 28 - 39
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the contribution of land tenure on enhancing food crops farming. A sample of 100 respondents was used and the specific objectives were to determine types of land tenure, assess their influence on enhancing food crop farming, as well examining challenges associated with them. Results have disclosed that, leased land tenure was the most type used in the study area, and has also assisted farmers to harvest more crops, access credits, and reduced land conflicts. On other hand, there were shortfalls associated with land tenure including less income, corruption, and a little awareness on the rationale of land tenure. It is recommended that, land officers and local leaders should raise community awareness on land tenure and its significance on subsistence farming as well the government has to reduce charges and bureaucracies of acquiring land tenures, so as to attract and enhance many rural communities to tenure their lands.

Antimicrobial Effects of Some Herbal Plants and Spices on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Gholizadeh ghara gheshlagh Alireza1, Razavi Rohani Seyyed Mehdi2, Mahmoudi Razzagh3*, Kaboudari Ata4, Kazeminia Masoud5
 PP. 40 - 48
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ABSTRACT: Currently, despite significant advances in medical science, the emergence of new diseases and their spread, especially in industrialized and developing societies, this phenomenon represents a directly relationship with the lifestyle of the twentieth century. On the other hand maintaining and increasing the shelf life of food for many manufacturers consideration and often with the use of a chemical preservative to achieve this aim, but the use of preservatives and additives natural against pathogenic organisms instead of chemical compounds is preferable in terms of food security as well as the taste of different food products. Antibacterial effect of twenty kinds of spices and herbs were evaluated on the Staphylococcus epidermidis 1878 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1471 by agar and broth dilution method. In agar dilution method showed, Vanilla planifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis and Engenia caryophyllata have antibacterial effect on growth of both of bacteria; Myristica fragrans, Piper nigrum, Mentha piperita, Brassica and Thymus valgaris have antibacterial effect on growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Thymus valgaris, Mentha pulegium, Cinnaamomum ceylanicum and Myristica fragrans have antibacterial effect on growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Except vanilla planifolia that completely inhibited the growth of both bacteria in the broth dilution method, in this method there are no inhibitory effects on other spices and herbs. Spices and herbs can have an inhibitory effect selectively on microorganisms. According to the results spices grouping to three groups can be highly effective, ineffective and low.

Determination of Levels of Ochratoxin A in Selected Cereal Grains Flour, Baked Wheat Bread and Finger Millet Brew Retailed in Market Outlets in Nairobi County, Kenya
Peter K. Karoki, Cecilia W. Kathurima, Ezekiel K. Njoroge, Sauda Swaleh, Wilson M. Njue
 PP. 49 - 58
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ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are of grave concern in food safety due to their health risks on both humans and animals. Ochratoxin A (OTA), a naturally occurring carcinogenic mycotoxin, was assessed in forty four (44) samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour, finger millet (Eleusine coracana) flour, wheat bread and traditional finger millet malted brew (Busaa). The samples were extracted for OTA, followed by clean up using SPE cartridges before determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that most of the samples contained OTA. The levels in finger millet flour and sorghum flour were 0.6302??0.0203 ng/g and 0.7439??0.0254 ng/g respectively. White wheat flour recorded lower levels (0.1174??0.0385 ng/g) than whole wheat flour (0.6176??0.0445 ng/g). The levels in whole wheat and white wheat bread were 0.9842??0.0904 ng/g and 0.3475??0.0158 ng/g respectively. Open-exposed whole wheat bread showed significantly higher levels of OTA (2.4938??0.1172 ng/g) than in white bread (1.7633??0.0243 ng/g). The overall mean OTA content in finger millet brewers malt and traditional finger millet malted brew was 0.7658??0.0192 ng/g and 3.0189??0.9452 ng/g respectively. There was significant variation in OTA levels in samples from different markets which was attributed to difference in storage conditions and quality of raw materials. Although the levels of OTA in flour samples were lower than the set limits in some countries, there is potential health risk associated with chronic exposure to OTA. The outcome of this study provides baseline data on the levels of OTA in cereals flour and their processed products retailed in Nairobi, Kenya.

Influence of Processing on Some Quality Identities of Crude Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Seed Oil
Jacob Olalekan Arawande, Jacob Olabode Alademeyin
 PP. 59 - 74
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ABSTRACT: Sesame seeds were dried and ground, and its oil was solvent extracted using n-hexane. The crude oil obtained was subjected to degumming, neutralization and bleaching to obtained degummed, neutralized and bleached oils. These oil samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition using gas chromatography to establish the effect of each processing stage on the oil. The oil content of sesame seed was 47.80??0.10%. Processing of the oil did not show any significant difference in specific gravity, refractive index and moisture content but reflected slight increase in iodine value (111.90?? 0.17 - 117.50??0.21 g/100g), smoke point (206.00??2.10 - 210.00??1.10??C), flash point (312.00??1.50 - 326.00??1.30??C) and fire point (335.00??0.88 - 342.00??1.10??C). The processing improved the quality of the oil by showing gradual decrease in turbidity point (8.00??0.25 - 5.00??0.45JTU), peroxide value (3.45??0.81 -0.86?? 0.01 meq peroxide/Kg), saponification value (191.20??0.43 - 187.90?? 0.23 mg KOH/g oil), colour (12.0 ??? 4.0 units), free fatty acid (1.92??0.01 - 0.82??0.12 % Linoleic acid) and acid value (3.84??0.24 - 1.64?? 0.23 mg KOH/g oil). The oil was found to contain palmitate, stearate, arachidate, oleate, linoleate and very minute linolenate in bleached oil. The percentage of these fatty acid increased during processing. There was gradual increase in saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and total fatty acid as the crude oil was processed to bleached oil. The oil was very rich in linoleic acid (44.79- 47.65%) and oleic acid (31.68-36.90%) while its palmitic and stearic acid content were 8.81-9.17% and 3.47- 4.86% respectively. Processing of the oil enhances its identity and quality characteristics thereby making the oil consumable rather than for industrial applications.

Physicochemical Characteristics, Nutritional Value and Antioxidant Activity of Ziziphus mauritiana Fruit and Processing Product in Savannah Region of Cameroon
Biyanzi P., Ndjouenkeu R., Mbofung C.M.F., Kamga R., Pallet D.
 PP. 75 - 99
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ABSTRACT: Jaabi or Ziziphus mauritiana fruit is an endemic fruit spread in the savannah region of Cameroon. This fruit contribute significantly to the people???s diet and it has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating various kinds of diseases. Asian jujube has been studied; however systematic study on African jujube is lacking. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterization of two ecotypes of jujube (Jaabi Lammuji or sour jujube and Jaabi Dakamji or sweet jujube) and their unique end product, Yaabande, processed using three cooking methods, in order to find whether they have comparable properties with Indian and Chinese jujubes. Samples Jaabi fruits and Yaabande were collected from four areas (Garoua, Maroua, Mokolo and Mora). A total of twenty six analysis where carried out. Recent data revealed the high content of some chemical constituents, which can give added value to this fruit on a nutritional and technological functionality basis. High levels of phosphorus, calcium and iron are noteworthy. The data obtained shows that the total phenolic, total flavonoids, vitamin P (bioflavonoid) and triterpenoic acids levels were high. It found that antioxidant activity of ecotypes Jaabi fruits, and their processed products, evaluated by three methods had high. These three methods of measuring the antiradical power showed significant correlations between them (TEAC, DPPH, r = 0.94; TEAC, FRAP, r = 0.93; DPPH, FRAP, r = 0.93) and were all significantly correlated with the content of total phenolic, total flavonoids, vitamin P, anthocyanins and triterpenoic acids, suggesting that these compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity of Jaabi. The end of this work revealed that steam cooking method was the preferred method to exploit further in the processing technology of Jaabi in Cameroon, compared to sun and stifle cooking. This is due to the hot vapor cooking applied that has a more limited destructive effect on biochemical and nutritive properties of Yaabande. The best ecotype was revealed to be Jaabi Dakamji. This is because it contains generally higher physicochemical and bioactive properties than Jaabi Lammuji.

Effect of Storage Temperature on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Pasteurized Milk in Nylon Packing
Masoud Kazeminia, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Peyman Ghajarbeygi, Shaghayegh Mousavi, Vahid Bozorgpour
 PP. 100 - 109
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ABSTRACT: Pasteurized milk used in Iran for various purposes such as drinking, making sweets and dairy products etc. Distributors of pasteurized milk due to lack of knowledge about storage conditions, used cold temperatures during the cold seasons as a factor for maintain of its. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and microbiological quality of pasteurized milk in Qazvin, Iran during the cold and warm seasons. A total of 60 samples of pasteurized milk in nylon packaging collected from supermarkets in Qazvin city from September, 2015 to August, 2016 during a 12-month period using random sampling, were analyzed according to standard methods. In the pasteurized milk samples, contamination with, Staphylococcus aureus, Mould & Yeast and Total Count was observed 17 (28.33%), 34 (56.66%) and 51 (85%) respectively. E. coli was not detected in any sample. The result of the experiment suggest that pasteurized milk tends to increase microbial population during refrigeration. Thus cold season temperatures cannot be used as factor for maintain milk.