International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 9 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 9 No. 1, 2018

The Effects of Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil before and after Flowering against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria
Razzagh Mahmoudi, Morteza Kosari-Nasab, Armin Hassanzadeh, Davoud Eshghi, Ata Kaboudari, Azar Mohammadi, Kazem Maftooni, Babak Pakbin, Mohammad Panahzadeh
 PP. 1 - 7
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ABSTRACT: The absence of side effects of herbal essential oils and their antimicrobial effects has led researchers to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of essential oils and plant extracts in vitro to control microorganisms with a natural source. Artemisia is one of the genera of the Anthemideae family, widely distributed in the world and containing more than 400 species. In this study, Artemisia spicigera before and after flowering was prepared from region Bostanabad of East Azerbaijan and essential oils were extracted using Clevenger apparatus. Constituents of essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. Then, the antimicrobial effect of essential oil Artemisia spicigera against bacteria isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) was determined and with some standard antibiotics as a positive control was compared. For the preparation of bacteria of 20 cows with clinical mastitis was sampled and after culturing milk samples, the bacteria were isolated. The results showed that the inhibitoriest effect of Artemisia essential oils, before and after flowering, was 15 and 30 mm on Staphylococcus aureus and 9 and 25 mm on Escherichia coli in 100% concentration, respectively. Also in antibiogram method most diameter of inhibition zone in culture medium against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was related to ceftriaxone, 40 and 25 mm, respectively. Results also showed that the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of Artemisia spicigera after flowering was more than before flowering. Due to the significant antibacterial activity of Artemisia essential oil in compared to different antibiotics can be concluded that essential oil of Artemisia spicigera has impressive antimicrobial properties, so it can be used in combination with other preservatives as natural herbal medicine using in treatment of mastitis in cows.

Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Fortified Dairy Products
Heena Jalal, Mohammad Ashraf Pal and Sheikh Rafeh Ahmad
 PP. 8 - 18
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ABSTRACT: Free radicals and reactive oxygen species such as the oxygen molecule behave as double-edged sword. They are important mediators in signal transduction and play a vital role in the production of biologically active and essential compounds. At the same time, these reactive oxygen species induce oxidative damage to biomolecules like lipids, nucleic acid, proteins, amines, deoxyribonucleic acid and carbohydrates and their oxidation products which cause aging, cancer, heart disease, stroke, arteriosclerosis, diabetes etc. Human beings are protected from such oxidative stress by various defense systems. The capacity of such protective systems, however, gradually decreases with aging or during certain pathological conditions resulting in disturbances to the normal redox equilibrium established in healthy systems. Therefore, to replenish this age/disease-induced loss, the body must be provided with a constant supply of antioxidants by the regular intake of a proper diet. New research interest has generated to develop functional food products with enhanced antioxidant properties. Fruits contain various bioactive compounds with antioxidant activities, and fermented dairy products have potential to be incorporated with fruits to enhance their antioxidant potential. Hence, in the present section an attempt has been made to review, briefly, the antioxidant properties of fruit fortified fermented dairy products in particular.

Bioactive Components and Bioactivities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Xiao-Yu Xu, Ya Li, Hua-Bin Li
 PP. 19 - 27
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ABSTRACT: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a delicious and nutritional fruit, and has attracted the attention of consumers as well as researchers. There was a high level of bioactive compounds in pomegranate, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. Pomegranate have shown various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Pomegranate could be used as a potential healthy supplement or biopharmaceutical for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. In this paper, we summarize present studies about bioactive components and bioactivities of pomegranate, providing a general and foundational information for further investigation.

Contribution of Land Tenure on Enhancing Subsistence Farming in Kibaha District, Tanzania
Japhet Ringo
 PP. 28 - 39
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the contribution of land tenure on enhancing food crops farming. A sample of 100 respondents was used and the specific objectives were to determine types of land tenure, assess their influence on enhancing food crop farming, as well examining challenges associated with them. Results have disclosed that, leased land tenure was the most type used in the study area, and has also assisted farmers to harvest more crops, access credits, and reduced land conflicts. On other hand, there were shortfalls associated with land tenure including less income, corruption, and a little awareness on the rationale of land tenure. It is recommended that, land officers and local leaders should raise community awareness on land tenure and its significance on subsistence farming as well the government has to reduce charges and bureaucracies of acquiring land tenures, so as to attract and enhance many rural communities to tenure their lands.