International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 11 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 11 No. 1, 2020

Heavy Metal Analysis in Fruit and Vegetable Juices Available in Nigerian Community by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
M. S. Zubairu, A. M. Mikail, and B. Magaji
      
 PP. 1 - 12
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ABSTRACT: Fruits and vegetables are considered as protective supplementary food as they contain significant quantities of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrate, essential amino acids and dietary fibers required for normal functioning of human metabolic processes. In this study metal analysis of four samples for both fresh and packaged fruit and vegetable juices of orange, pineapple, apple and tomato was carried out using AAS technique. The highest concentration of Fe and Cd was observed in fresh tomato juice, while the highest concentration of Cu is recorded in fresh pineapple juice. However Pb was not detected in all the samples which is good to know. The Cd levels observed in all the samples are below the permissible limit while the concentration of Fe and Cu are above the permissible limits imposed by WHO/FAO. The results of the sample analysis and their comparison with standard values showed that the concentrations of the essential heavy metals in the studied samples were above the standard limits imposed by joint WHO/FAO. This implies that considerable attention should be paid to the potential health risk of these metals, because they are essential only at appropriate concentrations.


In-Vitro Digestibility, Glycemic Index, Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Breakfast Cereals Developed from Flour Blends of Yellow Maize, Soybeans and Unripe Banana
Anne P. Edima-Nyah, Victor E. Ntukidem and Kachataiya G. Ta’awu
      
 PP. 13 - 36
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ABSTRACT: This study explored the potentials of Yellow maize, soybean and unripe banana flour blends in the development of nutritious breakfast cereals. Yellow maize, soybean and unripe banana were processed into flour and formulated into blends at different percentages. The proximate, functional, anti-nutritional and sensory properties of the breakfast cereals prepared from the flour blends as well as in- vitro (protein and starch) digestibility and in-vitro glycemic index were evaluated using standard methods. The proximate composition revealed Moisture (5.42-6.13 %), protein (9.25-14.75 %), Fat (2.15-4.82 %), Ash (3.40-3.80 %), Fibre (2.11-4.25 %) and Carbohydrate (67.28-76.56 %) contents. Moisture, ash and carbohydrate content increased while protein, fat and fibre content decreased with increased unripe banana flour. The bulk density of the samples ranged from 0.93– 1.71g/ml. Sample A (80:20:0) had the highest swelling capacity (128.00 %). Sample F (0:20:80) had the highest value for water absorption (2.60 %), oil absorption (2.40 %) and gelation temperature (80.00 %). The anti-nutrient composition showed that significant (P<0.05) difference existed among the breakfast cereals. Sample C (60:20:20) had the highest phytate (9.90 mg/100g). Sample F (0:20:80) had the highest tannin (76.62 mg/100g) and oxalate (218.50 mg/100g). Sample A (80:20:0) had the highest saponin value (16.23 mg/100g). In-vitro protein digestibility increased from 80.46 to 86.44% while in-vitro starch digestibility decreased from 78.16 to 88.65 %. In vitro glycemic index of the breakfast cereals decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in unripe banana flour in the formulation from 63.45 to 49.06. Mean sensory results revealed that the samples B competed with the control (Golden morn) in terms of overall acceptability. All the samples were generally acceptable to the panelists except for Sample F, showing that acceptable breakfast cereals could be made from yellow maize, soybean and banana flour blends.


Assessment of Microbiological Safety and Organoleptic Properties of Tiger-nut (Cyperus esculentus) Beverage Processed locally and Sold in Uyo Metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Victor E. Ntukidem, Anne P. Edima-Nyah, Linus S. Ndah, and Nsikak A. Abraham
      
 PP. 37 - 50
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ABSTRACT: Tiger-nut beverage is a one of the widely consumed non- alcoholic beverages in Nigeria with no standardized method of preparation. A total of 15 ready-to-drink tiger-nut beverages were purchased from five (5) locations within Uyo metropolis these include Ibom State secretariat, Akpan Adem market, Etaha Itam market, Akpan Ekpo market (Uniuyo), and Ibom plaza. Each sample was collected randomly from three (3) different vendors within the same location and a control sample was prepared in the laboratory. Microbiological analysis of the samples revealed that, the heterotrophic Bacterial, Coliform, Salmonella/Shigella and Fungal loads of the samples ranged from 1.1x103- 4.3x105 CFU/ml, 0 - 3.3x103 CFU/ml, 0 - 2.1x102 CFU/ml and 1.0x102 - 3.7x104 CFU/ml respectively. A total of 9 bacterial species including Citrobacter sp., Bacillus cereus, Micrococus Sp., Kiebsiella sp., Shigella sp., E.coli, Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus sp. and 6 fungal species including Rhyzopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Aspergillus paraciticus and Candida pseudotropicalis which were associated with the samples. Of these, Citrobacter sp, Pseudomonas sp and S. cerevisiae were the most encountered 9 (56.25%) and was followed by Klebsiella sp., Lactobacillus sp. and A. paraciticus 8(50%). Mean sensory results revealed that the sample from Akpan Ekpo Market University of Uyo competed favorably with the control (laboratory prepared) in terms of overall acceptability the tiger-nut beverage. Most of the microbial species associated with the samples are known etiologic agent of human diseases and posing a health threat to the consumers, thus adoption of proper sanitary and good manufacturing practices by the producers of tiger-nut beverage should be encouraged.