International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 13 No. 2or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 13 No. 2, 2018

Water Sodicity and Organic Pollution in Sediments and Organ Tissues of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from Ammar Drain and Damietta Branch of the River Nile, Nile Delta – Egypt
Ali A. Al-Halani; Ahmed E. Hagras; Sherif H. Abdeen; Abeer E. Abdrabbuh and Mohamed I. Mashaly
 PP. 68 - 88
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ABSTRACT: The present investigation aimed to assess water sodicity and some organic pollution indicators in Ammar Drain and Damietta Branch of the River Nile, East Nile Delta, Egypt over the period from March (2015) to February (2016). Water, sediment and fish tissue samples (muscles and gonads) were collected and analyzed by means of standard techniques. The organic pollution indicators estimated comprises: Dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphates (TP), total nitrates (TN), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and total organic carbon (TOC). Two teleosts, namely the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus and the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus were involved. TOC in sediment was positively correlated to that in fish organ tissues. All estimated physicochemical factors showed significant seasonal changes in the two aquatic ecosystems. However, their levels were higher in fish dwelling Ammar Drain than the River Nile. The irrigation water quality indices indicated higher levels of soluble sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate in Ammar Drain than the River Nile, reflecting higher sodicity regime in the drain ecosystem. The water quality index (WQI) showed significant difference between the two ecosystems (Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit Test: D = 2.449; P ≤ 0.001). Our data revealed that the water quality of Ammar Drain is ranked as bad drainage water, however the Damietta Branch of the River Nile is categorized as good surface water. The obtained data are dreadful and need for combined governmental and community efforts to overcome this crisis and remediate ecosystem degradation.

Periphytic Forms of Lotic Water System under Tropical Climatic Conditions
Tayra kosser, Parvaiz Ahmad Rather and Ashwani Wanganeo
 PP. 89 - 106
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ABSTRACT: Periphyton is sessile biota attached to submerged substrata which includes algae, invertebrates, detritus and microorganisms. It consists of mainly algae but also include bacterial and fungal matter. Diversity and abundance of algae is considered as indicator of water quality of aquatic systems. In lotic habitats, attached algal communities (periphyton) are often the only primary producers. The present study is based on the study of Periphyton population under tropical climatic condition. The present study was carried out at Hoshangabad site of River Narmada situated in Madhya Pradesh. Four sampling stations were selected viz. Shahgang (Site-1), Bandra Bandh (Site-2), Sethani Ghat (Site-3) and Bandra Bandh-2 (Site-4). During the present study a total 45 species of Periphytic forms were recorded from 13 different classes. In the present study high species diversity of Periphytic forms were recorded at the site having abundance of macrophytic vegetation.

Challenges of Rural Water Supply on Women Livelihoods in Ng’hambi and Chunyu Villages in Mpwapwa District, Tanzania
Chaeka Semango Mwesongo
 PP. 107 - 119
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ABSTRACT: A study involving 100 respondents was carried out in Mpwapwa district, Dodoma region in Tanzania to examine the challenges of rural water supply on women livelihoods at Ng’hambi and Chunyu villages. Data were collected using household questionnaires, key informant’s interviews and focus group discussions. Statistical Package for Social Science version 20 was used to analyse quantitative data while content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Findings indicate that Ng’hambi and Chunyu villages depend on Kinyasungwe seasonal river as the main source of water. In Ng’hambi village there are four boreholes and one windmill which was impaired. In Chunyu village there is no any water point following the impairment of the former five tap water points. Women of the two villages travelled an average distance of 8 kilometers in four hours for a round trip. The quantity of water carried in single trip by a woman is twenty litres. In cases when the household buy water, the price range between TZS 300 to 500 for a bucket. The consequence of walking long distance and time spent in water collection is deprivation of women opportunities to engage in income generating activities which in turn contributed to the decline of livelihoods. To ensure adequate water supply in the villages the study recommends collaboration between the government, NGOs and community to devise a plan of increasing the number of water points in the villages; construction of improved wells at Kinyasungwe seasonal River in order to save people’s health from dirty water and construction of water infrastructures from hilly water springs of Mtemachinyele and Sungura in Ng’hambi villages and Chiduwagwa, Chigolo and Ngobele in Chunyu village.