International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 14 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 14 No. 1, 2019

Extraction and Characterization of Algal Oil from Chroococcus minimus (Keissler) Lemm and Aphanocapsa grevillei (Hass.) Rabenh
Sonule Manju and Mulani Ramjan
      
 PP. 1 - 12
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ABSTRACT: Microalgae are the rapidly growing plants on the earth surface and renewable resource of energy containing rich protein, lipids and vitamins in their body. This study demonstrates the pure culturing of algal strains on BG-11 medium and production of algal oil from Chroococcus minimus (Keissler) Lemm and Aphanocapsa grevillei (Hass.) Rabenh. The extraction of algal oil was done by soxhlet method. GCMS analysis revealed the presence of Hexadecanoic acid, trimethylsilyl ester and 3-Naphthalen-2-yl-3-piperidin-1-yl-propan-1-ol, Dodecyl acrylate in Chroococcus minimus (Keissler) Lemmwhile1b,5,5,6a-Tetramethyl-octahydro-1- oxacyclopropa (a) inden-6-one, 2-Propanoic acid, oxybis (methyl-2,1-ethanediyl) ester, Oxirane, tetradecyl, 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Propanic acid, 3-mercapto, dodecyl ester, Phytol, 9,12 Octadecadienoic acid (zz), 3-Naphthalen-2yl-3-Piperidin-1-yl-Propan-1-ol, 9 (2, 2 Dimethylpropanoihydrazono)-3,6-dichloro-2,7-bis-(2-diethylamino)-ethoxyl) fluore, Tert-Hexadecanethiol, 1-Docosene, 9,12-Octa decadienoyl Chloride (zz),1,2-15,16-Diepoxyhexadecane and Squalene compounds are present in Aphanocapsa grevillei (Hass.) Rabenh. Presence of these compounds may be useful in the area of pharmaceutical, cosmetics and biofuel etc.


Spectroscopic Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tap Water for Health Benefits
Birhan Belay and Kusse Gudishe Goroya
      
 PP. 13 - 19
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ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to measure concentration of six heavy metals: Cadmium(Cd), Chromium(Cr), Copper(Cu), Lead(Pb), Nickel(Ni), and Zinc(Zn) at sub- ppm levels in tap water using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Results showed that only the heavy metals Cd and Zn present in studied samples reaching maximum average value of 0.0005±0.0002 ppm and 0.0050±0.0010 ppm, respectively. However, the maximum levels of the concentration of the both detected heavy metals did not reach the maximum limit allowed for human health. The rest of the heavy metals that underwent test in this research work were under the limit of detection method.


Empirical Distribution of Emissions from Commercial Motorcycles (Okada) and Motor Vehicles in Abeokuta, Nigeria
Ojo Johnson F, Olubiyi Adenike O, Rasaki Olawale Olanrewaju
      
 PP. 20 - 39
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ABSTRACT: Road transport emission via agents of air pollutant is rapidly increasing in highly dense metropolises, cities and urban areas in Nigeria. This study investigates the distributional form and properties of direct gaseous exhaust of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and hydrocarbon (HC) by motor vehicles (MVs) and motorcycles (MCs) in Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria with a view to know the appropriate distributions and their implications. It was divulged that HC is the most emphatic, highly release emitted air pollutant substance by MCs with distributional form of Weibull, and shape parameter of 1.48 suggesting around one minutes forty-eight seconds dissolve into the air hemisphere while O2 and HC were the alarming substances for MVs. Furthermore, for CO, it was unveiled that Gamma and Weibull distributions were the ideal fit for MVs and MCs respectively; Normal and Logistic distributions best described CO2 for MVs and MCs respectively; Gamma or Weibull and Logistic distributions performed well in modelling O2 for MVs and MCs respectively. The ideal distributions for HC were Exponential and Weibull for MVs and MCs respectively. Hence, these air pollutants need to be monitored using the suggested models since continuous release at an alarming rate is a threat to human health.


Geospatial Modeling of Human Thermal Comfort in Akure Metropolis Using Thom’s Discomfort Index
Oluwafemi O. Adegoke, Tesini P. Dombo
      
 PP. 40 - 55
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ABSTRACT: This study was carried out in Akure, the capital city of Ondo state, Nigeria. The city was divided into five (5) landuse classes (Administrative, Commercial, Industrial, Institutional and Residential). The study’s objective was to determine the thermal comfort or discomfort of people to the environmental conditions that obtains particularly temperature and relative humidity in Akure, with respect to the thermal discomfort index (DI). This index was calculated from Thom’s formula which is DI = T - (0.55-0.0055*RH) (T-14.5). The interested micro-climatic parameters of air temperature and relative humidity, were obtained from the archives of era interim (ECMWF) for a period of 31 years (1986-2017). Decadal averaging was done (using Microsoft Excel) on the discomfort index values obtained to break the discomfort values into three decades (1986 – 1996, 1997 – 2006, and 2007 – 2017). Thom’s Table of DI Ranges was used to determine the percentage of the population of Akure metropolis suffering from discomfort or otherwise. From this study, it can be inferred that over a period of 31 years, over 50% of the population in Akure are experiencing thermal discomfort. The discomfort indices greater than 30 or 32 (indicating 100% of the population feeling discomfort or the condition of medical emergency, respectively) were not attained in Akure metropolis over the same period of 31 years.


Cobalt Alters the Seedling Vigour on Oryza sativa (L.). Under Soilless Cultivation
Kaliyamoorthy Jayakumar and T. Nedumaran
      
 PP. 56 - 67
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ABSTRACT: Application of cobalt alters the seedling vigour on Oryza sativa (L.). under Soilless cultivation. All the germination percentage, vigour index, tolerance index, percentage of phytotoxicity and growth parameters, such as, root length, shoot length and dry weight were increased at 5mg l-1 cobalt concentration of paddy plants. The above parameters were decreased at higher (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100mg l-1) concentrations of cobalt solution.


Production Analysis of Biogas from Animal Dungs and Biodiesel from Neem and Jatropha Seed Oils
M. S. Zubairu, A. A. Illo, and J. Zegge
      
 PP. 68 - 82
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ABSTRACT: Biogas and biodiesel as renewable fuels were produced in this study from different substances. Comparative production of biogas from selected slurries was done to determine the production efficiencies and the effectiveness of different feeds. The production potential of a feed with respect to digester size, distance travelled by the gas and temperature variation on the efficiency of biogas production were also investigated. The results showed that cow dung (190 cm3), one meter (3573 cm3), outside (4180 cm3), and two liter (5020 cm3) setups produced more total biogas than their counterparts. Biodiesel was produced from neem and jatropha seed oils which were extracted by simple mechanical devices and then pretreated using esterification or neutralization process to reduce FFA to < 1 (which gives high quality) before being trans-esterified using methanol with KOH as catalyst to biodiesel. The FFA of both oils decreased on esterification and neutralization which account for their essence in biodiesel production. Esterification is more economical than neutralization based on the time required. It was observed that the biodiesel should be produced as soon as the oil is extracted because the longer oil stays, the higher the FFA, which requires multiple esterification and neutralization.