International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 12 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 12 No. 1, 2017

Spatio-Temporal Changes in Water Quality of Jhelum River, Kashmir Himalaya
Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood, Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Asmat Rashid, Sartaj Ahmad Ganie
 PP. 1 - 29
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ABSTRACT: With 24 tributaries, River Jhelum is the main water resource of the Kashmir valley with immense socio-economic significance. The Jhelum is greatly utilised for its water and food such as fish. Since Jhelum passes through many rural and urban settlements, the river gets polluted with sewage from settlements, agricultural runoff and effluent discharges from various small and large scale industrial units. A detailed limnological study of the River Jhelum was conducted. Six sampling sites were selected in three discrete regions of river Jhelum. A total of sixteen Physico-chemical parameters were analysed on seasonal basis as per the standard methodology. The physico-chemical characteristics of river water varied in a close relationship with its catchment pattern. Among the cations Ca and Mg were found dominant as compared to K and Na, the overall cationic order being Ca>Mg>Na>K. Among the anions Cl- dominated the carbonates and bicarbonates. Overall the physico-chemical parameters of water showed a significant trend with sites and seasons. Most of the parameters showed peak values at Qamarwari site of the river Jhelum, as this site receives domestic and commercial sewage from Srinagar city. Among four seasons, summer season showed elevated levels for all quality parameters, as this is the main season for agricultural and commercial activities leading to decline in the water quality of river Jhelum. Drastic changes in water quality of the Jhelum are mainly due to indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and unplanned urbanization and commercialisation in its catchment area. The present investigation highlighted the deterioration in water quality from upstream to downstream of river Jhelum was mainly due to discharge of commercial and agricultural sources. The anthropogenic pressure on the river is likely to increase if not addressed immediately which may completely alter its water quality in near future.