International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 12 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 12 No. 1, 2017

Spatio-Temporal Changes in Water Quality of Jhelum River, Kashmir Himalaya
Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood, Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Asmat Rashid, Sartaj Ahmad Ganie
 PP. 1 - 29
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ABSTRACT: With 24 tributaries, River Jhelum is the main water resource of the Kashmir valley with immense socio-economic significance. The Jhelum is greatly utilised for its water and food such as fish. Since Jhelum passes through many rural and urban settlements, the river gets polluted with sewage from settlements, agricultural runoff and effluent discharges from various small and large scale industrial units. A detailed limnological study of the River Jhelum was conducted. Six sampling sites were selected in three discrete regions of river Jhelum. A total of sixteen Physico-chemical parameters were analysed on seasonal basis as per the standard methodology. The physico-chemical characteristics of river water varied in a close relationship with its catchment pattern. Among the cations Ca and Mg were found dominant as compared to K and Na, the overall cationic order being Ca>Mg>Na>K. Among the anions Cl- dominated the carbonates and bicarbonates. Overall the physico-chemical parameters of water showed a significant trend with sites and seasons. Most of the parameters showed peak values at Qamarwari site of the river Jhelum, as this site receives domestic and commercial sewage from Srinagar city. Among four seasons, summer season showed elevated levels for all quality parameters, as this is the main season for agricultural and commercial activities leading to decline in the water quality of river Jhelum. Drastic changes in water quality of the Jhelum are mainly due to indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and unplanned urbanization and commercialisation in its catchment area. The present investigation highlighted the deterioration in water quality from upstream to downstream of river Jhelum was mainly due to discharge of commercial and agricultural sources. The anthropogenic pressure on the river is likely to increase if not addressed immediately which may completely alter its water quality in near future.

Historical Assessment of Malaria Hazard and Mortality in Nigeria - Cases and Deaths: 1955 – 2015
Kayode A. Adepoju, Godwin E. Akpan
 PP. 30 - 46
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ABSTRACT: Malaria hazard has become a major public health problem especially in the sub-Saharan African regions and Nigeria in particular. While malaria cases decrease globally in recent times, it increases exponentially in Nigeria resulting in many deaths especially among children under five years. This study examined historical trend and anomaly of malaria cases and mortality in Nigeria spanning a period of sixty years. The result shows that malaria prevalence increased significantly between 2000 and 2015 and most of the cases were found among children and women. It was also found that malaria distribution in Nigeria may experience a shift towards the north central region due to complex environmental, social and demographic factors. The observed shift in parasite prevalence across regions in the country suggests that more studies on climate change impacts on malaria transmission within the country should be carried out.

The Pastoralists’ Resilience and Innovative Adaptation Strategies on Impacts of Climate Change in Rangelands of Longido District, Tanzania
Laurent Joseph and Abiud Kaswamila
 PP. 47 - 61
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ABSTRACT: The study investigated pastoralists’ resilience and innovative adaptation strategies to the impacts of climate change in Longido district. Data were collected using several methods including household survey, Focus Group Discussion, interviews and field visits. The results indicate that pastoralist’s resilience and adaptation strategies varied from one village to another. The major strategies were migration, construction and use of water reservoirs, use of traditional weather forecasting techniques, regulation of livestock reproduction, and use of by-laws.